Boys and girls differ in symptoms and neurodevelopmental outcome after perinatal metabolic acidosis, a population-based study
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionActa Paediatrica. 2018, . 10.1111/apa.14703
Aim To evaluate sex differences in infants born at term with metabolic acidosis with regard to perinatal health and symptomatology, and developmental outcome. Methods From a population-based cohort of infants born at term (n = 14 687), 78 were prospectively identified as having metabolic acidosis at birth. Two matched controls per case were selected. Sex differences in perinatal characteristics and in neurodevelopmental outcome at 6.5 years of age were analysed. Subgroup analysis was made based on need of neonatal care and planned follow-up. Results Acidotic boys who appeared healthy, that is with no need of specialised neonatal care respectively only followed at ordinary health care service, have worse perinatal symptoms and less favourable neurodevelopmental outcome compared to girls. The male disadvantage concerning neurodevelopmental outcome was also indicated in children without acidosis. Outcome at 6.5 years was associated with Apgar at 10 minutes (p = 0.03), need of neonatal care (p = 0.04) and sex (p = 0.02) but not acidosis per se (p = 0.54). Conclusion Sex affected immediate symptomatology in term acidotic infants and neurodevelopmental outcome at the age of 6.5 years. The findings were seen in those who appeared healthy in the neonatal period. The results suggest that sex should be considered in assessment of acidotic children.