Exploring the diagnostic potential of adding T2 dependence in diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the prostate
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionPLOS ONE. 2021, 16 (5), . 10.1371/journal.pone.0252387
Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is essential in the detection and staging of prostate cancer. However, improved tools to distinguish between low-risk and high-risk cancer are needed in order to select the appropriate treatment. Purpose: To investigate the diagnostic potential of signal fractions estimated from a two-component model using combined T2- and diffusion-weighted imaging (T2-DWI). Material and methods: 62 patients with prostate cancer and 14 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) underwent combined T2-DWI (TE = 55 and 73 ms, b-values = 50 and 700 s/mm^2) following clinical suspicion of cancer, providing a set of 4 measurements per voxel. Cancer was confirmed in post-MRI biopsy, and regions of interest (ROIs) were delineated based on radiology reporting. Signal fractions of the slow component (SF_slow) of the proposed two-component model were calculated from a model fit with 2 free parameters, and compared to conventional bi- and mono-exponential apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) models. Results: All three models showed a significant difference (p<0.0001) between peripheral zone (PZ) tumor and normal tissue ROIs, but not between non-PZ tumor and BPH ROIs. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve distinguishing tumor from prostate voxels was 0.956, 0.949 and 0.949 for the two-component, bi-exponential and mono-exponential models, respectively. The corresponding Spearman correlation coefficients between tumor values and Gleason Grade Group were fair (0.370, 0.499 and -0.490), but not significant. Conclusion: Signal fraction estimates from a two-component model based on combined T2-DWI can differentiate between tumor and normal prostate tissue and show potential for prostate cancer diagnosis. The model performed similarly to conventional diffusion models.