Placental inflammation by HMGB1 activation of TLR4 at the syncytium
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionPlacenta. 2018, 72-73 53-61. 10.1016/j.placenta.2018.10.011
Normal pregnancy is characterized by an elevated inflammatory state involving the placenta. The placental inflammation is further increased in preeclampsia, resulting in release of harmful danger signals to the maternal circulation. Activation of toll-like receptors (TLR)2 and TLR4 by endogenous danger signals plays a role in inflammatory diseases. Placental TLR2 and TLR4 expression has been reported, and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a likely endogenous activator of these receptors. We aimed to examine HMGB1 activation of TLR2 and TLR4 as mechanisms of placental inflammation in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies, by combined analysis of expression and function of the ligand HMGB1, the receptors TLR2 and TLR4, and the cytokine responder interleukin (IL)-8.