Do Norwegians with diabetes have a healthier diet than the general population?
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonNorsk Epidemiologi. 2013, 23 (1), 61-74. 10.5324/nje.v23i1.1604
Objective: Review current knowledge about dietary habits among people with diabetes in Norway compared with the general population and nutrient- and food-based dietary recommendations. Method: Baseline dietary data from four intervention studies in subjects with type 2 diabetes, were merged (n=92) and compared with data extracted from a nationwide dietary survey, NORKOST, where participants with diabetes (n=115) were compared with a gender and age matched control group (n=575). A validated food frequency questionnaire was used for dietary assessment. An overview of previously published data from two studies among young people with type 1 diabetes was included for comparison. Results: Subjects with diabetes had an intake of carbohydrates in the lower recommended range and lower than the controls, which was reflected in a lower intake of added sugar, sweets, potatoes, sugar-sweetened beverages, and fruit juices. Subjects with diabetes had a fiber intake which was similar or higher than controls, but below the recommended intake. They reported a higher proportion of energy from protein and fat than controls, reflecting the higher intake of meat, fish, edible fats, and high-fat meat products. There was a higher intake of vegetables, fruits and whole grain among subjects with diabetes compared with controls, but also a higher intake of red meat. Conclusion: Compared with the recommendations, people with diabetes had a low intake of carbohydrates and a high intake of protein and fat, but they made more healthy choices regarding intake of selected food groups compared with the control groups.