Functional outcome and survival following spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: A retrospective population-based study
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonBrain and Behavior. 2018, 1-9. 10.1002/brb3.1113
Background Accurate and reliable clinical and radiological predictors of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) outcomes are needed to optimize treatment of ICH. The aim of this study was to investigate functional outcome and identify predictors of severe disability or death following ICH. Materials and methods Retrospective population‐based study of spontaneous ICH. Clinical and radiological data were obtained from electronic medical records, and functional outcome estimated using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) before ICH and at 3 and 12 months after ICH. Results Four hundred and fifty‐two patients were included (mean age 74.8 years, 45.6% females). Proportion of fatal outcome at 1 week was 22.1%, at 3 months 39.2%, and at 12 months 44.9%. Median mRS score before the ICH was 1 (interquartile range [IQR] 2); for survivors at 3 months, it was 5 (IQR 3); and at 12 months, it was 3 (IQR 2). Independent predictors of severe disability (mRS of 5) or death (mRS of 6) were use of oral antithrombotic drugs (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3–3.8, p = 0.04), mRS score before the ICH (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4–2.2, p < 0.001), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) on admission (OR 8.3, 95% CI 3.5–19.7, p < 0.001), hematoma volume >60 ml (OR 4.5, 05% CI 2.0–10.2, p < 0.001), and intraventricular hematoma extension (OR 1.8, 95% CI 0.8–4.2, p < 0.001). Conclusion Intracerebral hemorrhage is associated with high mortality, and more than one third of survivors end up with severe disability or death 3 months later. Predictors of severe disability or death were use of oral antithrombotic drugs, functional disability prior to ICH, low GCS on admission, larger hematoma volume, and intraventricular hematoma extension.