Serum NMR-Based Metabolomics Profiling Identifies Lipoprotein Subfraction Variables and Amino Acid Reshuffling in Myeloma Development and Progression
Peer reviewed, Journal article
MetadataShow full item record
Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable hematological cancer. It is preceded by monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS)—an asymptomatic phase. It has been demonstrated that early detection increases the 5-year survival rate. However, blood-based biomarkers that enable early disease detection are lacking. Metabolomic and lipoprotein subfraction variable profiling is gaining traction to expand our understanding of disease states and, more specifically, for identifying diagnostic markers in patients with hematological cancers. This study aims to enhance our understanding of multiple myeloma (MM) and identify candidate metabolites, allowing for a more effective preventative treatment. Serum was collected from 25 healthy controls, 20 patients with MGUS, and 30 patients with MM. 1H-NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) spectroscopy was utilized to evaluate serum samples. The metabolite concentrations were examined using multivariate, univariate, and pathway analysis. Metabolic profiles of the MGUS patients revealed lower levels of alanine, lysine, leucine but higher levels of formic acid when compared to controls. However, metabolic profiling of MM patients, compared to controls, exhibited decreased levels of total Apolipoprotein-A1, HDL-4 Apolipoprotein-A1, HDL-4 Apolipoprotein-A2, HDL Free Cholesterol, HDL-3 Cholesterol and HDL-4 Cholesterol. Lastly, metabolic comparison between MGUS to MM patients primarily indicated alterations in lipoproteins levels: Total Cholesterol, HDL Cholesterol, HDL Free Cholesterol, Total Apolipoprotein-A1, HDL Apolipoprotein-A1, HDL-4 Apolipoprotein-A1 and HDL-4 Phospholipids. This study provides novel insights into the serum metabolic and lipoprotein subfraction changes in patients as they progress from a healthy state to MGUS to MM, which may allow for earlier clinical detection and treatment.