The pro-tumorigenic cytokine IL-32 has a high turnover in multiple myeloma cells due to proteolysis regulated by oxygen-sensing cysteine dioxygenase and deubiquitinating enzymes
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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IL-32 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine expressed by several types of cancer cells and immune cells. Currently, no treatment targeting IL-32 is available, and its intracellular and exosomal localization make IL-32 less accessible to drugs. We previously showed that hypoxia promotes IL-32 expression through HIF1α in multiple myeloma cells. Here, we demonstrate that high-speed translation and ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation lead to a rapid IL-32 protein turnover. We find that IL-32 protein half-life is regulated by the oxygen-sensing cysteine-dioxygenase ADO and that deubiquitinases actively remove ubiquitin from IL-32 and promote protein stability. Deubiquitinase inhibitors promoted the degradation of IL-32 and may represent a strategy for reducing IL-32 levels in multiple myeloma. The fast turnover and enzymatic deubiquitination of IL-32 are conserved in primary human T cells; thus, deubiquitinase inhibitors may also affect T-cell responses in various diseases.