En bloc radical cystectomy: An overview of the technique and oncological results
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionBJUI Compass. 2022, 1-11. 10.1002/bco2.190
Objectives To reduce recurrence after radical cystectomy (RC), we developed a technique based on the principles of the circumferential resection margin used during total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer, namely, en bloc radical cystectomy (EbRC). Patients and methods The study included all patients in Mid-Norway (population of 739 k) with high-grade superficial or muscle invasive bladder cancer considered for radical treatment according to European guidelines, from January 2012 to August 2021, except for three patients receiving trimodal therapy. One hundred forty-five patients were treated with EbRC and 188 patients with standard RC (stdRC). There were no exclusion criteria. Both groups included open and robot-assisted techniques. EbRC entails cystectomy with extended pelvic lymph node dissection. The technique focuses on systematic uninterrupted mobilisation of all lymphatic tissue from the circumferential resection margin towards the bladder pedicles, and resecting the tissue en bloc with the bladder. Results The 3-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 86% for EbRC versus 67% for stdRC. The hazard ratio for overall survival in multivariable cox regression analyses after EbRC versus stdRC was 0.30 (95% CI 0.16–0.57, p ≤ 0.001). The improved outcomes persisted in propensity score-matched analyses. There were no differences in Clavien–Dindo 3 and 4 complications (12.4% vs. 11.7%), nor 90-day mortality (2.1% vs. 1.6%). Conclusion Improved oncological results with EbRC versus stdRC mirror the historical data after total mesorectal excision was initiated over 35 years ago in rectal cancer surgery. EbRC is safe and the preliminary oncological results are promising.