Vitamin D Status among Women in a Rural District of Nepal: Determinants and Association with Metabolic Profile—A Population-Based Study
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionNutrients. 2022, 14 (11), . 10.3390/nu14112309
Hypovitaminosis D is prevalent worldwide, and especially in South-Asia. According to the Institute of Medicine (IOM), 25(OH)D levels below 30 nmol/L are defined as vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and levels between 30–50 nmol/L as insufficiency (VDI). Besides its role in calcium homeostasis, it has been postulated that vitamin D is involved in metabolic syndrome. Given the scarcity of data on vitamin D status in Nepal, we aimed to examine the prevalence of VDD and VDI, as well as the determinants and association with metabolic parameters (lipids, HbA1c), in a cohort of women in rural Nepal. Altogether, 733 women 48.5 ± 11.7 years of age were included. VDD and VDI were observed in 6.3 and 42.4% of the participants, respectively, and the prevalence increased by age. Women reporting intake of milk and eggs > 2 times weekly had higher 25(OH)D levels than those reporting intake < 2 times weekly. Women with vitamin D levels < 50 nmol/L displayed higher levels of cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and HbA1c. Additionally, a regression analysis showed a significant association between hypovitaminosis D, dyslipidemia, and HbA1c elevation. In conclusion, VDI was prevalent and increased with age. Milk and egg intake > 2 times weekly seemed to decrease the risk of VDI. Moreover, hypovitaminosis D was associated with an adverse metabolic profile.