Preventing type 2 diabetes, overweight and obesity in the Norwegian primary healthcare: a longitudinal design with 60 months follow-up results and a cross-sectional design with comparison of dropouts versus completers
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Objectives Studies have demonstrated that it is possible to prevent type 2 diabetes for individuals at high risk, but long-term results in the primary healthcare are limited and high dropout rates have been reported. Design A longitudinal design was used to study changes in participants’ diabetes risk and anthropometrics from baseline to 60 months follow-up. A cross-sectional design was applied to investigate differences between dropouts and completers of the 60 months follow-up. Setting Healthy Life Centres in the Norwegian primary healthcare. Participants 189 individuals aged >18 years with a Finnish Diabetes Risk Score ≥12 and/or a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 were included and offered to attend Healthy Life Centre programmes for 12 months. Measurements were performed annually up to 60 months after inclusion. Interventions Healthy Life Centres arrange behavioural programmes including physical activity offers and dietary courses as part of the primary healthcare. This study offered individuals to attend Healthy Life Centre programmes and followed them for 60 months. Primary outcome Assess changes in participants’ diabetes risk, cardiovascular measures and anthropometrics from baseline to 60 months. Secondary outcome Investigate characteristics of dropouts compared with completers of 60 months follow-up. Results For participants at 60 months follow-up, diabetes risk and anthropometrics decreased (p<0.001). Out of 65 participants classified as high risk for diabetes at baseline, 27 (42%) changed to being at moderate risk at 60 months follow-up. Remission of diabetes was seen for six of nine participants. Of 189 participants enrolled in the programme, 54 (31%) dropped out at any given point before 60 months follow-up. Dropouts were younger with higher, BMI, weight and waist circumference compared with the completers (p<0.001). Conclusions Having a long-term commitment for participants in primary healthcare interventions could be beneficial for the reduction of diabetes risk and improvement of anthropometrics as shown at the 60 months follow-up.