Designing Movement-based Play and Games - In Theory and Practice
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This thesis investigates movement, bodily experiences and play and game design to advance the fields of HCI and interaction design, game studies in general and (movement-based) play and game design in particular. The interest in designing technologies for and with the body has been a topic for decades, consolidating with the entrance of phenomenological perspectives to bodily experiences into the HCI, interaction design and game design fields. The assumption behind this interest is grounded in an understanding that designs, particularly digital designs and play and games, are bodily experiences. However, within this interest, little attention has been given to investigating the role of movement for bodily experiences and the connection to (movement-based) play and game design. Even less attention has been given to what such knowledge can tell us about the relationship between humans and technologies. In other words, how humans and non-humans are enmeshed. Addressing this gap, movement is investigated from the aspects of play and game design, bodily experience and technology. For such inquiries, the Research through Design (RtD) methodology is chosen as it combines and draws on both practical design knowledge and theoretical knowledge in a mutually informing process. Concretely, a movement-based game was designed along with a set of derived theories through an RtD process. Thus, the process revealed both practical and theoretical contributions. Because of the emphasis on technology and bodily experiences, the theoretical and epistemological background comprises a posthumanist orientation in a phenomenological and postphenomenological perspective. The process led to the following contributions: Theoretical foundation of movement-based game design as different structures of “play” or game, and how bodily attitudes emerge as the doings; being playful or “gameful”, including derived design strategies. Restraints and paraphernalia as bodily preconditions and surrounding conditions; generic game mechanics supporting, facilitating and encouraging movement and bodily play, including definitions and design strategies. • A movement-based game as a practical exemplar designed from the above theoretical contributions. In addition, the design comprises a modular structure adaptable to various situations as a response to technical and practical issues regarding appropriation of movement-based play and games in everyday living environments. Furthermore, the game is empirically evaluated and found constituting a pervasive interactive playground. The role of movement in digital play; how bodies are continuously constituting, (re)configuring and negotiating through movement. Furthermore, it is argued that movement pre-reflectively transcends the physical, technological and virtual worlds and delineates bodies as combinations thereof. From these investigations, this thesis provides a perspective to movement as an underlying dynamic of play and game experiences in particular and how humans, nonhumans, and technologies are enmeshed in general. Consequently, this thesis argues that all play and games are movement-based because movement does not pertain to humans only.
Has partsPaper 1: Matjeka, Louise Petersen; Mueller, Florian 'Floyd'. Designing for Bodily Play Experiences Based on Danish Linguistic Connotations of "Playing a Game". I: Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play. Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) 2020 ISBN 978-1-4503-8074-4. s. 19-31
Paper 2: Matjeka, Louise Petersen; Hobye, Mads; Larsen, Henrik Svarrer. 2021. Restraints as a Mechanic for Bodily Play. In CHI ’21: Proceedings of the 2021 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM Press, Online. Not included due to copyright restrictions. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1145/3411764.3445622
Paper 3: Matjeka, Louise Petersen; Wang, Alf Inge. Paraphernalia – Game Mechanics Facilitating Bodily Movement and Play. Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) 2022 (ISBN 9781450391566) Not included due to copyright restrictions. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1145/3491101.3519702
Paper 4: Matjeka, Louise. The Move Maker – Exploring Bodily Preconditions and Surrounding Conditions for Bodily Interactive Play. I: CHI 2020 : Proceedings of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA — April 25th -30th, 2020. Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) 2020 ISBN 978-1-4503-6708-0.
Paper 5: Matjeka, Louise Petersen; Svanæs, Dag; Wang, Alf Inge. Turning Eight Family Homes Into Interactive, Pervasive Playgrounds During the COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown. Inbodied interaction. Human-Media Interaction, Frontiers
Paper 6: Matjeka, Louise Petersen; Wirman, Hanna; Vereijken, Beatrix. The Role of Movement in Digital Play. Under review in Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, Taylor & Francis This paper is under review for publication and is therefore not included.