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dc.contributor.authorIanevski, Aleksandr
dc.contributor.authorYao, Rouan
dc.contributor.authorBiza, Svetlana
dc.contributor.authorZusinaite, Eva
dc.contributor.authorMannik, Andres
dc.contributor.authorKivi, Gaily
dc.contributor.authorPlanken, Anu
dc.contributor.authorKurg, Kristiina
dc.contributor.authorTombak, Eva-Maria
dc.contributor.authorUstav, Mart Jr
dc.contributor.authorShtaida, Nastassia
dc.contributor.authorKulesskiy, Evgeny
dc.contributor.authorJo, Eunji
dc.contributor.authorYang, Jaewon
dc.contributor.authorLysvand, Hilde
dc.contributor.authorLøseth, Kirsti
dc.contributor.authorOksenych, Valentyn
dc.contributor.authorAas, Per Arne
dc.contributor.authorTenson, Tanel
dc.contributor.authorVitkauskienė, Astra
dc.contributor.authorWindisch, Marc P
dc.contributor.authorFenstad, Mona H.
dc.contributor.authorNordbø, Svein Arne
dc.contributor.authorUstav, Mart
dc.contributor.authorBjørås, Magnar
dc.contributor.authorKainov, Denis
dc.description.abstractCombination therapies have become a standard for the treatment for HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. They are advantageous over monotherapies due to better efficacy, reduced toxicity, as well as the ability to prevent the development of resistant viral strains and to treat viral co-infections. Here, we identify new synergistic combinations against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), echovirus 1 (EV1), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) in vitro. We observed synergistic activity of nelfinavir with convalescent serum and with purified neutralizing antibody 23G7 against SARS-CoV-2 in human lung epithelial Calu-3 cells. We also demonstrated synergistic activity of nelfinavir with EIDD-2801 or remdesivir in Calu-3 cells. In addition, we showed synergistic activity of vemurafenib with emetine, homoharringtonine, anisomycin, or cycloheximide against EV1 infection in human lung epithelial A549 cells. We also found that combinations of sofosbuvir with brequinar or niclosamide are synergistic against HCV infection in hepatocyte-derived Huh-7.5 cells, and that combinations of monensin with lamivudine or tenofovir are synergistic against HIV-1 infection in human cervical TZM-bl cells. These results indicate that synergy is achieved when a virus-directed antiviral is combined with another virus- or host-directed agent. Finally, we present an online resource that summarizes novel and known antiviral drug combinations and their developmental status.en_US
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleIdentification and Tracking of Antiviral Drug Combinationsen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.description.localcode© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (

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