Can a Peritoneal Conduit Become an Artery?
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionEJVES Short Reports. 2020, 49, 23-29. 10.1016/j.ejvsvf.2020.10.001
Objective Current vascular grafts all have limitations. This study examined peritoneum as a potential graft material and the in vivo transfer of peritoneum into a functional artery like conduit after end to end anastomosis into the common carotid artery of sheep. The aim was to investigate whether implantation of a peritoneal tube into the arterial tree results in a structure with function, histological findings, and gene expression like an artery, and whether such arterialisation occurs through a conversion of the phenotype of peritoneal cells or from host cell migration into the implant. Methods Peritoneum with adherent rectus aponeurosis from sheep was used to form tubular vascular grafts that were implanted into the common carotid artery of six sheep, then removed after five months. Two sheep received allogenic peritoneal grafts and four sheep received autologous peritoneal grafts. Results One sheep died shortly after implantation, so five of the six sheep were followed. Five months after implantation, four of the five remaining grafts were patent. Three of four patent grafts were aneurysmal. The four patent grafts had developed an endothelial layer indistinguishable from that of the adjacent normal artery, and a medial layer with smooth muscle cells with a surrounding adventitia. The new conduit displayed vasomotor function not present at the time of implantation. DNA genotyping showed that the media in the new conduit consisted of recipient smooth muscle cells. Little difference in mRNA expression was demonstrated between the post-implantation conduit and normal artery. Conclusion During a five month implantation period in the arterial system, peritoneum converted into a tissue that histologically and functionally resembled a normal artery, with a functional genetic expression that resembled that of an artery. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis indicated that this conversion occurs through host cell migration into the graft.