Changing care pathways and between-center practice variations in intensive care for traumatic brain injury across Europe: a CENTER-TBI analysis
Huijbers, Jilske; Wiegers, E; Lingsma, Hester F; Citerio, Giuseppe; Maas, Andrew I.R.; Menon, David K; Ercole, Ari; Nelson, David; van der Jagt, Mathieu; Steyerberg, Ewout; Helbok, Raimund; Lecky, Fiona; Peul, Wilco; Birg, Tatiana; Zoerle, Tomaso; Carbonara, Marco; Stocchetti, Nino; Andelic, Nada; Andreassen, Lasse; Lund, Stine Borgen; Frisvold, Shirin; Helseth, Eirik; Røe, Cecilie; Røise, Olav; Sandrød, Oddrun; Schirmer-Mikalsen, Kari; Vik, Anne; Åkerlund, Cecilia; Amrein, Krisztina; Brorsson, Camilla; Azzolini, Maria Luisa; Bartels, Ronald; Beer, Ronny; Bellander, Bo-Michael; Benali, Habib; Berardino, Maurizio; Beretta, Luigi; Beqiri, Erta; Blaabjerg, Morten; Buki, Andras; Cabeleira, Manuel; Caccioppola, Alessio; Calappi, Emaliana; Calvi, Maria Rosa; Cameron, Peter; Guillermo, Carbayo Lozano; Sundström, Nina; Tibboel, Dick; Ples, Horia; Sakowitz, Oliver; Ziverte, Agate
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionIntensive Care Medicine. 2020, 46 (5), 995-1004. 10.1007/s00134-020-05965-z
Purpose: To describe ICU stay, selected management aspects, and outcome of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Europe, and to quantify variation across centers. Methods: This is a prospective observational multicenter study conducted across 18 countries in Europe and Israel. Admission characteristics, clinical data, and outcome were described at patient- and center levels. Between-center variation in the total ICU population was quantified with the median odds ratio (MOR), with correction for case-mix and random variation between centers. Results: A total of 2138 patients were admitted to the ICU, with median age of 49 years; 36% of which were mild TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale; GCS 13–15). Within, 72 h 636 (30%) were discharged and 128 (6%) died. Early deaths and long-stay patients (> 72 h) had more severe injuries based on the GCS and neuroimaging characteristics, compared with short-stay patients. Long-stay patients received more monitoring and were treated at higher intensity, and experienced worse 6-month outcome compared to short-stay patients. Between-center variations were prominent in the proportion of short-stay patients (MOR = 2.3, p < 0.001), use of intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring (MOR = 2.5, p < 0.001) and aggressive treatments (MOR = 2.9, p < 0.001); and smaller in 6-month outcome (MOR = 1.2, p = 0.01). Conclusions: Half of contemporary TBI patients at the ICU have mild to moderate head injury. Substantial between-center variations exist in ICU stay and treatment policies, and less so in outcome. It remains unclear whether admission of short-stay patients represents appropriate prudence or inappropriate use of clinical resources.