Zero-Emission Autonomous Ferries for Urban Water Transport: Cheaper, Cleaner Alternative to Bridges and Manned Vessels
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OriginalversjonIEEE Electrification Magazine. 2019, 7 (4), 32-45. 10.1109/MELE.2019.2943954
Because water is an integral part of day-to-day life for humans, civilizations have generally flourished either in coastal areas or near river basins. Today, about 40% of the world?s population lives near a coast and many of the biggest cities are located near the sea or along rivers. In Norway, a high percentage of people live in coastal areas. There are many waterways, such as canals and fjords, in these coastal areas. Constructing bridges over these water channels is expensive and may hinder marine traffic. Therefore, in the coastal cities, urban ferries are much more than tourist attractions. They are an integral part of the city?s multimodal transportation system and essential for easing road traffic and congestion.