Travellers' Reactions to the Removal of Inconveniences due to Fixed Link Projects
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Fixed link projects are important infrastructure projects, as they provide a reliable, flexible and permanent connection between two previously separated geographical areas. These projects both remove travellers’ waiting time and improve their travel time between the connected areas. Further, these projects change accessibility significantly and remove inconveniences. This in turn may affect travellers, who might react by changing either their residence or travel patterns, including trip frequency, transportation mode, destination, or route. These impacts trigger variations in traffic volumes. Little research has been done related to travellers' reactions against the removal of inconveniences due to fixed links, which could explain why current traffic simulations over- or under-estimate the traffic in these projects. This might then lead to biased transport assessments, and thus ineffective fund allocation. This thesis aims to contribute knowledge regarding these types of infrastructures as a basis for improving traffic simulations. Firstly, a survey was conducted in order to understand travellers’ behaviour when using a ferry connection and explain the potential inconveniences associated with this type of transportation dependency. Results showed that trips which include a ferry connection resulted in longer travel times for commuter trips than the national average. The major inconveniences of the ferry connections were related to overall trip planning, accessibility to family and friends, leisure activities, and a broader labour market. Secondly, an embedded multiple-case study was undertaken to observe any impact on population relocation. Results showed that connected areas presented greater population growth than expected, especially after toll removal. The effects were greater for projects completed close to urban areas. Thirdly, a holistic single-case study was conducted to identify changes in travel patterns. Results showed indications of changes made in routes and modes of transport due to toll removal in a fixed link. In contrast, no indications of changes in trip frequency or destination were found. The findings from this thesis might generate further and more accurate studies of including inconveniences in transport models because these studies are quantified and demonstrate significant differences in perception among the different categories of socioeconomic and trip features. In addition, improved knowledge based on eleven ex-post analyses might serve as a basis for improving the transport models’ population input data. Further ex-post studies should be conducted to validate the findings of travel pattern changes.
Has partsPaper 1: Díez Gutiérrez, María; Andersen, Stig Nyland; Nilsen, Øyvind Lervik; Tørset, Trude. Impacts on Land use Characteristics from Ferry Replacement Projects. Two Case Studies from Norway. Transportation Research Procedia 2015 ;Volum 10. s. 286-295 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trpro.2015.09.078
Paper 2: Díez Gutiérrez, María; Andersen, Stig Nyland; Nilsen, Øyvind Lervik; Tørset, Trude. Modelling the Impacts on Population Caused by Fixed Link Projects. Transportation Research Procedia 2016 ;Volum 14. s. 4468-4477 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trpro.2016.05.369
Paper 3: Andersen, Stig Nyland; Díez Gutiérrez, María; Nilsen, Øyvind Lervik; Tørset, Trude. The impact of fixed links on population development, housing and the labour market: The case of Norway. Journal of Transport Geography 2018 ;Volum 68. s. 215-223 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2018.03.004
Paper 4: Díez Gutiérrez, María; Andersen, Stig Nyland; Nilsen, Øyvind Lervik; Tørset, Trude. Generated and induced traffic demand: Empirical evidence from a fixed link toll removal in Norway. Case Studies on Transport Policy 2019 ;Volum 7.(1) s. 57-63 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cstp.2018.11.007
Paper 5: Díez Gutiérrez, María; Tørset, Trude. Perception of inconvenience costs: Evidence from seven ferry services in Norway. Transport Policy 2019 ;Volum 77. s. 58-67 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2019.03.002