Maternal serum retinol, 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D concentrations during pregnancy and peak bone mass and trabecular bone score in adult offspring at 26-year follow-up
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionPLOS ONE. 2019, 14:e0222712 (9), 1-15. 10.1371/journal.pone.0222712
Background Vitamin A and D deficiency is prevalent in pregnant women worldwide. Both vitamins are involved in fetal skeletal development. A positive association between maternal vitamin D levels and offspring bone mineral density (BMD) at adulthood has been observed. The impact of maternal vitamin A status in pregnancy on offspring peak bone mass remains unclear. Method and findings Forty-one mother-child pairs were recruited from a population-based prospective cohort study in Trondheim, Norway, where pregnant women were followed from gestational week 17. Their term-born infants were followed from birth (1986–88). Regression analyses were performed for vitamin A (retinol), 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] in maternal serum (gestational weeks 17, 33, 37) and cord blood. Offspring BMD and spine trabecular bone score (TBS), a measure of bone quality, were analyzed by dual x-ray absorptiometry at 26 years. Average levels during pregnancy of retinol, 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were 1.66 (0.32) μmol/L, 59.0 (20.6) nmol/L, and 251.3 (62.4) pmol/L, respectively. 1,25(OH)2D levels were similar in those with 25(OH)D levels <30 and >75 nmol/L. After adjustment for maternal age, BMI, smoking, and education, and offspring birth weight, maternal serum retinol was positively associated with offspring spine BMD [mean change 30.8 (CI 7.6, 54.0) mg/cm2 per 0.2 μmol/L retinol], and with offspring TBS, although non-significant (p = 0.08). No associations were found between maternal 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D levels and offspring bone parameters. Vitamin levels in cord blood were not associated with offspring BMD or TBS. Conclusions This is the first study to show an association between maternal vitamin A status and offspring peak bone mass. Our findings may imply increase future risk for osteoporotic fracture in offspring of mothers with suboptimal vitamin A level. No associations were observed between 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D and offspring BMD.