Effects of vitamin D supplementation on bone turnover markers and other bone-related substances in subjects with vitamin D deficiency
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionBone. 2019, 124 7-13. 10.1016/j.bone.2019.04.002
In observational studies, vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for low bone density and future fractures, whereas a causal relation has been difficult to show in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Similarly, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased bone turnover, but RCTs with vitamin D have not shown conclusive effects. This could be due to inclusion of vitamin D sufficient subjects and low vitamin D doses. In the present study 399 subjects with mean baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) 34.0 nmol/L completed a four months intervention with vitamin D3 20,000 IU per week versus placebo. Mean serum 25(OH)D increased to 89.0 nmol/L in the vitamin D group and decreased slightly in the placebo group. A small, but significant, decrease in the bone formation marker procollagen of type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) was seen in the vitamin D group as compared to the placebo group (mean delta P1NP -1.2 pg/mL and 1.5 ng/mL, respectively, P < 0.01). No significant effects were seen on serum carboxyl-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX-1), Dickkopf-1, sclerostin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor ĸB ligand, or leptin. Subgroup analyses on subjects with low baseline serum 25(OH)D did not yield additional, significant results. In subjects with high baseline serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) > 6.5 pmol/L and post-intervention decrease in PTH, the decrease in P1NP was more pronounced, they also exhibited significantly reduced serum CTX-1 and increased serum sclerostin. In conclusion, supplementation with vitamin D appears to suppress bone turnover, possibly mediated by PTH reduction. Our findings need to be confirmed in even larger cohorts with vitamin D insufficient subjects.