Ultrapure Wood Nanocellulose - Assessments of Coagulation and Initial Inflammation Potential
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionACS Applied Bio Materials. 2019, . 10.1021/acsabm.8b00711
Using a lepirudin-based human whole blood model, we evaluated the initial inflammatory and coagulation responses of dense and porous ultrapure (<50 endotoxin units/grams) cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), of carboxylated grade. The CNF was compared to the wound dressing AquaCel because it is a potential wound-healing material. The porous CNF aerogels induced the strongest coagulation potential measured as prothrombin factor 1.2 (PTF1.2). AquaCel induced the strongest complement response by terminal complement complex (TCC) and surface C3c. All materials activated leukocytes CD11b, while the levels of only 3 of 27 cytokines were significantly changed, limited to (i) an elevation of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL) by the CNF aerogel, (ii) a reduction of eosinophil chemotactic proteins (eotaxin/CCL11) by the CNF aerogel, and (iii) a reduction of platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) by all CNF materials. In conclusion, the CNF materials and AquaCel differently activate coagulation, complement, and cytokines, improving the selection possibilities in various treatment situations of wound healing.