Current-Driven Dynamics of Magnetic Hopfions
Journal article, Peer reviewed
MetadataVis full innførsel
opological magnetic textures have attracted considerable interest since they exhibit new properties and might be useful in information technology. Magnetic hopfions are three-dimensional (3D) spatial variations in the magnetization with a nontrivial Hopf index. We find that, in ferromagnetic materials, two types of hopfions, Bloch-type and Néel-type hopfions, can be excited as metastable states in the presence of bulk and interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions, respectively. We further investigate how hopfions can be driven by currents via spin-transfer torques (STTs) and spin-Hall torques (SHTs). Distinct from 2D ferromagnetic skyrmions, hopfions have a vanishing gyrovector. Consequently, there are no undesirable Hall effects. Néel-type hopfions move along the current direction via both STT and SHT, while Bloch-type hopfions move either transverse to the current direction via SHT or parallel to the current direction via STT. Our findings open the door to utilizing hopfions as information carriers.