Current-Driven Dynamics of Magnetic Hopfions
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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opological magnetic textures have attracted considerable interest since they exhibit new properties and might be useful in information technology. Magnetic hopfions are three-dimensional (3D) spatial variations in the magnetization with a nontrivial Hopf index. We find that, in ferromagnetic materials, two types of hopfions, Bloch-type and Néel-type hopfions, can be excited as metastable states in the presence of bulk and interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions, respectively. We further investigate how hopfions can be driven by currents via spin-transfer torques (STTs) and spin-Hall torques (SHTs). Distinct from 2D ferromagnetic skyrmions, hopfions have a vanishing gyrovector. Consequently, there are no undesirable Hall effects. Néel-type hopfions move along the current direction via both STT and SHT, while Bloch-type hopfions move either transverse to the current direction via SHT or parallel to the current direction via STT. Our findings open the door to utilizing hopfions as information carriers.