Investigation of strategies to dimension the HVAC system in museums - A case study: Viking Age museum in Norway
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The museum as an institution is tasked to conserve collections of artifacts for the future generation, while also making them available for the public. The museum needs strict control of the parameters temperature and relative humidity of the indoor microclimate to maintain a preventive environment for the collection, while also creating thermal comfort for the occupants. This thesis investigates how the HVAC system can be designed to maintain the indoor parameters temperature and relative humidity. Every museum s collection is individual and needs to be assessed in collaboration with the responsible conservator to determine the environmental target setpoints and thresholds for fluctuations. Incorrect levels of temperature and relative humidity imposes several hazards to the preservation of a museum s collection, literature agrees that the outcome of short-term fluctuation can be detrimental. A high-performance mechanical ventilation system with active humidity control is needed to ensure the maximum expected lifetime of the collection. A case study is performed on the new Viking Age Museum that is scheduled to stand finished in 2022/2023 at Bygdøy in Norway. Microclimate analysis is performed in the dynamic whole building simulation program IDA ICE to evaluate the HVAC designs performance in maintaining the strict target setpoints of 50 ±5% and 20 ±2˚C. The environment of the exhibition hall that is to house the Oseberg Viking ship has been analyzed for winter and summer simulations. Different latent heat recovery solutions potential for energy reduction and effect on the HVAC systems performance was investigated. Rotary desiccant and heat wheel in series showed the greatest potential with 21.5% reduction of the AHU energy demand for winter simulations, compared to the AHU without latent heat recovery. The rotary enthalpy wheel had a reduction of 14.3 % and the rotary heat wheel had an 11.3 % reduction in the same scenario. The AHU design with rotary desiccant and heat wheel in series showed both great potentials for increased moisture and heat loads, and to reduce the needed air volumes while still maintaining the target setpoints.