Seismic analysis of asphalt core rockfill dams. The case of the proposed Cetin Dam in Turkey
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The seismic performance of the proposed Cetin dam with asphalt concrete core has been evaluated using the pseudo-static method, the Newmark displacement analysis-rigid method, and the non-linear numerical analysis. The proposed Cetin dam is 160 m height and located in a region with high earthquake hazard where the SSE equals to 0.56g. The results of the pseudo-static analysis and the non-linear analysis confirm that the seismic stability and performance of the upstream slope is more vulnerable than the downstream slope. The results of pseudo-static analyses indicate that the factor of safety is below 1.00 for the upstream sliding wedges with an inclination of 25° and 30° under the SEE loading. Therefore, instability of the upstream slope is expected under such severe loads. The different stages of the construction and impounding were carried out before non-linear dynamic analysis. The results of the non-linear dynamic analysis show that the maximum vertical settlement occurs at the upstream side of crest but is not sufficient to cause the overtopping of the dam crest and different residual settlement between asphalt core and con-joint filter zones are observed. Moreover, the horizontal deformation of the asphalt core is solely dependent on the stiffness of the shell, and the thin asphalt core cannot govern the overall seismic behavior of the dam. Furthermore, the asphalt concrete core might be sheared-off at the 15 m below the dam crest due to whipsaw effect.