Amplifier for optimal reflection Coefficient of ultrasound transducer: A study of op amp based circuits for ultrasound transducers, targeted for low reflection Coefficient, high gain, and low noise
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Reverberation is defined as equally-spaced, bright linear echoes resulting from reflection from specular-type interfaces. They are provoked by the acoustic Impedance change between the tissue and transducer front surface. B. Angelsen developed a mathematical approach to correct this ultrasound artifact by coupling the ultrasound transducer with an ideal electrical load in order to obtain zero reflection coefficients on the transducer from face . However, when analyzing Impedance spectroscopy this approach cannot be achieved by using passive electronics in most simulated cases. Active impedance may be seen as a trend to improve image quality. This research therefore implements and simulates methods for active impedance synthesis  and applies Particle Swarm Optimization to the proposed electronics. Finally, the simulations are compared through a LAB experiment.