Energy Efficiency in Swimming Facilities
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High and increasing energy use is a worldwide issue that has been reported and documented in the literature. Various studies have been performed on renewable energy and energy efficiency to counteract this trend. Although using renewable energy sources reduces pollution, improvements in energy efficiency reduce total energy use and protect the environment from further damage. In Europe, 40 % of the total energy use is linked to buildings, making them a main objective concerning reductions in energy use. There are many reports offering possibilities to increase energy efficiency in different building types. However, compared with publications about residential or commercial buildings, few publications have considered sports facilities. This building category contains a variety of different facilities. Among sports facilities, two building types stand out due to their excessive energy use: ice rinks and swimming facilities; this thesis addresses the latter. The goals of the thesis are as follows: I Collect energy statistics from swimming facilities in European countries. An indepth analysis of Norwegian facilities was conducted to compare them with similar facilities in other countries and to define their potential for energy savings. II Investigate different energy performance indicators (EPI). Few studies have addressed the variety of different indicators for swimming facilities. In addition, there is no consensus in the literature regarding which indicators are best to use. III Characterise swimming facilities with the lowest energy use. Identify and describe key figures and technologies. A questionnaire was used to collect data, and answers from 43 Norwegian swimming facilities were used in the analysis. All collected datasets were recalculated to match the Oslo climate in 2010 for better comparison. A significant variation in final annual energy consumption (FAEC) was identified. The potential reduction of the FAEC in Norwegian swimming facilities is estimated to be approximately 28 %. Correlations between FAEC and the variables of interest were calculated. FAEC was found to have the strongest correlation with water usage (WU), followed by the number of visitors, the usable area (UA) and the water surface (WS). In reality, reliable values for any of these variables are difficult to obtain except for the WS. The author recommends using kWh/visitor as the unit for the EPI if reliable data is available, otherwise kWh/m² WS can be used with certain limitations. Additional data were collected to perform an in-depth analysis. Heat exchangers and heat pumps are used to recover energy from the outgoing water and air in the facilities with the lowest energy use. The energy is then used to warm incoming air, pool water and tap water. The used technology is well known but the composition of the system is decisive. However, even the best swimming facilities have potential for improvement.
Består avPaper 1: Kampel, Wolfgang; Aas, Bjørn; Bruland, Amund. Energy-use in Norwegian swimming halls. Energy and Buildings 2013 ;Volum 59. s. 181-186 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2012.11.011
Paper 2: W. Kampel, S. Carlucci, B. Aas, A. Bruland, Energy performance indicators for a reliable benchmark of swimming facilities
Paper 3: Kampel, Wolfgang; Aas, Bjørn; Bruland, Amund. Characteristics of energy-efficient swimming facilities - A case study. Energy 2014 ;Volum 75. s. 508-512 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2014.08.007