The impact of proton pump inhibitors on the course of ulcerative colitis: a cohort study of over 10,000 newly diagnosed patients in Norway
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionScandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. 2023, . 10.1080/00365521.2023.2255710
Background and Aims Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) affect the gastrointestinal microbiota, which is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). Previous studies suggest an association between PPI use and risk of incident UC as well as disease course. The aim of the study was to examine if PPI exposure is associated with disease course in UC patients. Methods A national cohort consisting of all newly diagnosed UC patients from 2010 to 2020 was defined combining data from Norwegian registries. PPI exposure was included as a time dependent variable with a 30 day time lag from starting the drug. Outcomes were starting advanced therapies including anti-TNF, systemic glucocorticoids, any additional systemic anti-inflammatory medication and undergoing colectomy during follow-up. Time-dependent Cox regressions included the variables PPI use, first systemic glucocorticoid prescription, first UC hospitalization, age-groups and sex. Results The study cohort consisted of 10,149 patients with median age 40 years (IQR 27–56) and 56% males. PPI use independently increased the risk of starting advanced therapies (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.36–1.73, p < 0.005), starting systemic glucocorticoids (HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.07–1.34, p < 0.005), starting any additional anti-inflammatory treatment (HR 1.18, 95%CI 1.05–1.32, p < 0.01) and undergoing colectomy (HR 1.52, 95%CI 1.17–1.98, p < 0.005). Conclusions PPI use was associated with unfavorable outcomes including advanced therapy initiation, additional anti-inflammatory medications and undergoing colectomy. Although further studies are needed, the evidence suggests that PPIs could affect the course of UC and should be used cautiously in UC patients.