Spatially and taxonomically explicit characterisation factors for greenhouse gas emission impacts on biodiversity
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionResources, Conservation and Recycling. 2023, 198 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2023.107159
In life-cycle impact assessment, currently available characterisation factors (CF) for climate change impacts on biodiversity are highly simplified and do not consider spatial and taxonomic differentiation of species or local climate variability. We develop the first spatially and taxonomically specific CFs for the impacts of 20 GHGs on biodiversity considering 26,648 species across terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Generally, CFs are higher in the tropics, and marine species are affected more severely than terrestrial ones. When global GHG emissions from 2020 are assessed in a scenario with a global temperature rise of 3 °C by 2100, an average of 0.25%, 0.15% and 0.03% of species are negatively affected in 2100 from CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions, respectively, across the globe. The new CFs can be used at different levels of spatial and taxonomic aggregation to quantify co-benefits for biodiversity of climate change mitigation in tools such as life-cycle assessment, input-output analyses, or integrated assessment models.