Are levator hiatal dimensions in mid-pregnancy associated with mode of delivery?
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionInternational Urogynecology Journal. 2022, 33 3529-3534. 10.1007/s00192-022-05111-x
Introduction and hypothesis Slow progress of labour is a risk for operative delivery. Smaller levator hiatal dimensions are possible risk factors for slow progress and operative delivery. Our aim was to explore associations between hiatal dimensions antenatally, duration of second stage of labour and mode of delivery. Methods Prospective cohort study of 65 nullipara examined at 20 weeks gestation and 6 months postpartum. Levator hiatal anteroposterior diameter and area were measured using 2D/3D transperineal ultrasound and compared between women with normal vaginal delivery and operative delivery (vacuum or caesarean) using t-test and with Spearman’s rank to explore correlations with duration of second stage. ROC analysis established a cut-off for high risk of operative delivery. Results Two-dimensional anteroposterior diameter and 3D hiatal area at rest were smaller in women with operative delivery than with normal delivery, 5.0 cm vs. 5.7 cm, p = 0.007 and 18.5 cm2 vs. 14.9 cm2, p < 0.001. From the ROC curve for 2D anteroposterior diameter, a cut-off of 5.6 cm, (sensitivity = 0.94, specificity = 0.63) and for 3D hiatal area a cut-off of 17.6 cm2 (sensitivity = 0.94, specificity = 0.65) predicted operative delivery. We found inverse correlations between second stage of labour and anteroposterior diameter at rest, r = −0.330, contraction, r = −0.365, area at rest, r = −0.324, and contraction, r = −0.521, all p < 0.05. Conclusions Smaller hiatal dimensions at 20 weeks gestation were associated with longer second stage of labour and increased risk of operative delivery in nullipara. A 2D anteroposterior hiatal diameter < 5.6 cm and 3D hiatal area < 17.6 cm2 at rest imply increased risk of operative delivery.