F2c2C-DM: A Fog-to-cloudlet-to-Cloud Data Management Architecture in Smart City
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Smart city solutions make a high-level technological innovation in a city to expand their citizens' quality of life by several different technological management strategies (such as resource management and data management) among end-users, city planners, and technological devices (e.g., sensors, IoT devices, etc.). Currently, data management architectures have been offered by some researchers to organize obtained data in smart cities, including Centralized Data Management (CDM) and Distributed-to-Centralized Data Management (D2C-DM). In addition, the D2C-DM architecture can provide several advantages from the combined advantages of distributed (e.g., Fog) and centralized (e.g., Cloud) technologies, such as reducing network traffic and their latencies, upgrading the security levels and so on. In this paper, we propose several novel contributions. First, we design a D2C-DM with Fog, cloudlet, and Cloud technologies to organize huge amounts of the data production in smart city scenarios, from physical devices (including IoT and sensors devices) to non-physical devices (including third-party applications, and other databases). Second, we tailor our proposed D2C-DM architecture with the Zero Emission Neighborhoods (ZEN) scenario to manage its different data types, including context, research, and Key Performance Indicator (KPI) data. Finally, the advantages of this D2C-DM architecture are discussed.