HVDC Circuit Breakers: A Comprehensive Review
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) systems are now well-integrated into AC systems in many jurisdictions. The integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) is a major focus and the role of HVDC systems is expanding. However, the protection of HVDC systems against DC faults is a challenging issue that can have negative impacts on the reliable and safe operation of power systems. Practical solutions to protect HVDC grids against DC faults without a widespread power outage include (1) using DC Circuit Breakers (CBs) to isolate the faulty DC-link, (2) using a proper converter topology to interrupt the DC fault current, and/or (3) using high power DC transformers and DC hubs at strategic points within DC grids. The application of HVDC CBs is identified as the best approach that satisfies both DC grids and connected AC grids requirements. This paper reports a comprehensive review of HVDC CBs technologies, including recent significant attempts in the development of modern HVDC CBs. The functional analysis of each technology is presented. Additionally, different technologies based on information obtained from literature are compared. Finally, recommendations for the improvement of CBs are presented.