Impedance and Noise of Passive and Active Dry EEG Electrodes: A Review
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Dry electrodes are a promising solution for prolonged EEG signal acquisition, whereas wet electrodes may lose their signal quality in the same situation and require skin preparation for set-up. Here, we review the impedance and noise of passive and active dry EEG electrodes. In addition, we compare noise and input impedance of the EEG amplifiers. As there are multiple definitions of impedance in each EEG system, they are all first defined. Electrodes must be compatible with amplifiers to accurately record EEG signals. This implies that their impedance plays a significant role in amplifier compatibility and affects total input-referred noise. Therefore, we review the impedance and noise of state-of-the-art amplifiers and electrodes. Furthermore, we compare the various structures and materials used and their final impedance to that of wet electrodes. Finally, we compare state-of-the-art electrodes and amplifiers to the standards of the IFCN and IEC80601-2-26. We investigate bottlenecks and propose a guideline for future work on passive and active dry electrodes, as well as EEG amplifiers.