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dc.contributor.authorTaddei, Cristina
dc.contributor.authorZhou, Bin
dc.contributor.authorBixby, Honor
dc.contributor.authorCarrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M.
dc.contributor.authorDanaei, Goodarz
dc.contributor.authorJackson, Rod T.
dc.contributor.authorAhmed, Soheir H
dc.contributor.authorAndersen, Lars Bo
dc.contributor.authorAnderssen, Sigmund Alfred
dc.contributor.authorAriansen, Inger Kristine Holtermann
dc.contributor.authorBjertness, Espen
dc.contributor.authorBjertness, Marius Bergsmark
dc.contributor.authorGraff-Iversen, Sidsel
dc.contributor.authorHaugsgjerd, Teresa Risan
dc.contributor.authorJanszky, Imre
dc.contributor.authorKrokstad, Steinar
dc.contributor.authorLaugsand, Lars Erik
dc.contributor.authorMadar, Ahmed Ali
dc.contributor.authorMathiesen, Ellisiv B.
dc.contributor.authorMeyer, Haakon E
dc.contributor.authorSen, Abhijit
dc.contributor.authorTell, Grete S.
dc.contributor.authorVatten, Lars Johan
dc.contributor.authorWilsgaard, Tom
dc.contributor.authorFarzadfar, Farshad
dc.contributor.authorSophiea, Marisa K.
dc.contributor.authorDi Cesare, Mariachiara
dc.contributor.authorIurilli, Maria L. C.
dc.contributor.authorMartinez, Andrea Rodriguez
dc.contributor.authorAsghari, Golaleh
dc.contributor.authorDhana, Klodian
dc.contributor.authorGulayin, Pablo
dc.contributor.authorKakarmath, Sujay
dc.contributor.authorSantero, Marilina
dc.contributor.authorVoortman, Trudy
dc.contributor.authorRiley, Leanne M.
dc.contributor.authorCowan, Melanie J.
dc.contributor.authorSavin, Stefan
dc.contributor.authorBennett, James E.
dc.contributor.authorStevens, Gretchen A.
dc.contributor.authorPaciorek, Christopher J.
dc.contributor.authorAekplakorn, Wichai
dc.contributor.authorCifkova, Renata
dc.contributor.authorGiampaoli, Simona
dc.contributor.authorKengne, Andre Pascal
dc.contributor.authorKhang, Young-Ho
dc.contributor.authorKuulasmaa, Kari
dc.contributor.authorLaxmaiah, Avula
dc.contributor.authorMargozzini, Paula
dc.contributor.authorMathur, Prashant
dc.identifier.citationNature. 2020, 582 73-77.en_US
dc.description.abstractHigh blood cholesterol is typically considered a feature of wealthy western countries1,2. However, dietary and behavioural determinants of blood cholesterol are changing rapidly throughout the world3 and countries are using lipid-lowering medications at varying rates. These changes can have distinct effects on the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, which have different effects on human health4,5. However, the trends of HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels over time have not been previously reported in a global analysis. Here we pooled 1,127 population-based studies that measured blood lipids in 102.6 million individuals aged 18 years and older to estimate trends from 1980 to 2018 in mean total, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol levels for 200 countries. Globally, there was little change in total or non-HDL cholesterol from 1980 to 2018. This was a net effect of increases in low- and middle-income countries, especially in east and southeast Asia, and decreases in high-income western countries, especially those in northwestern Europe, and in central and eastern Europe. As a result, countries with the highest level of non-HDL cholesterol—which is a marker of cardiovascular risk—changed from those in western Europe such as Belgium, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Malta in 1980 to those in Asia and the Pacific, such as Tokelau, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. In 2017, high non-HDL cholesterol was responsible for an estimated 3.9 million (95% credible interval 3.7 million–4.2 million) worldwide deaths, half of which occurred in east, southeast and south Asia. The global repositioning of lipid-related risk, with non-optimal cholesterol shifting from a distinct feature of high-income countries in northwestern Europe, north America and Australasia to one that affects countries in east and southeast Asia and Oceania should motivate the use of population-based policies and personal interventions to improve nutrition and enhance access to treatment throughout the world.en_US
dc.publisherNature Researchen_US
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleRepositioning of the global epicentre of non-optimal cholesterolen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.description.localcodeOpen Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit

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Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal