Multimodal data capabilities for learning: What can multimodal data tell us about learning?
Peer reviewed, Journal article
MetadataShow full item record
Most research on learning technology uses clickstreams and questionnaires as their primary source of quantitative data. This study presents the outcomes of a systematic literature review of empirical evidence on the capabilities of multimodal data (MMD) for human learning. This paper provides an overview of what and how MMD have been used to inform learning and in what contexts. A search resulted in 42 papers that were included in the analysis. The results of the review depict the capabilities of MMD for learning and the ongoing advances and implications that emerge from the employment of MMD to capture and improve learning. In particular, we identified the six main objectives (ie, behavioral trajectories, learning outcome, learning‐task performance, teacher support, engagement and student feedback) that the MMLA research has been focusing on. We also summarize the implications derived from the reviewed articles and frame them within six thematic areas. Finally, this review stresses that future research should consider developing a framework that would enable MMD capacities to be aligned with the research and learning design (LD). These MMD capacities could also be utilized on furthering theory and practice. Our findings set a baseline to support the adoption and democratization of MMD within future learning technology research and development.