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dc.contributor.authorKalfoss, Mary
dc.contributor.authorReidunsdatter, Randi Johansen
dc.contributor.authorKløckner, Christian
dc.contributor.authorNilsen, Marianne
dc.description.abstractThe World Health Organization’s Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL-Bref ) is a frequently used instrument to assess the quality of life in both healthy and ill populations. Inquiries of the psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-Bref report that the validity and reliability is generally satisfactory. However, some studies fail to support a four-factor dimensionality; others report poor reliability of the social and environmental domain; and there may be some challenges of supporting construct validity across age. This paper evaluates the psychometric properties of the Norwegian WHOQOL-Bref and extends previous research by testing for measurement invariance across age, gender and education level. In addition, we provide updated normative data for the Norwegian population. Methods: We selected a random sample of the Norwegian population (n=654) aged 18–75 years. Participants flled out the WHOQOL-Bref, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and various sociodemographic variables. Results: We found an acceptable convergent and discriminate validity and internal consistency of the physical, psychological and environmental domains, but a marginal reliability was found for the social domain. The factor loadings were invariant across gender, education and age. Some items had low factor loadings and explained variance, and the model ft for the age group 60–75 years were less satisfactory. Conclusions: The original four-factor dimensionality of the WHOQOL-Bref displayed a better ft to the data compared to the one-factor solution and is recommended for use in the Norwegian population. The WHOQOL-Bref is suitable to use across gender, education and age, but for assessment in the oldest age group, the WHOQOL-Old module could be a good supplementary, but further studies are neededen_US
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleValidation of the WHOQOL-Bref: psychometric properties and normative data for the Norwegian general populationen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.source.journalHealth and Quality of Life Outcomesen_US
dc.description.localcode© The Author(s) 2021. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativeco applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.en_US

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