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dc.contributor.authorJohannessen, Lene Nanette
dc.contributor.authorGrimstad, Hans Jørgen
dc.contributor.authorSkjetne, Jens Emil
dc.contributor.authorMyklebust, Ida Nord
dc.contributor.authorSvendsen, Kristin V Hirsch
dc.identifier.citationJournal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. 2020, 17 (10), 495-503.en_US
dc.description.abstractThe Internet of Things (IoT) explores new perspectives and possible improvements in risk assessment practices and shows potential to measure long-term and real-time occupational exposure. This may be of value when monitoring gases with short-term maximum levels and for time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations used in standard measuring practices. A functional embedded system was designed using low-cost carbon monoxide (CO) electrochemical sensors and long-range-wide-area-network radio communication technology (LoRaWAN) was used to enable internet connectivity. This system was utilized to monitor gas levels continuously in the working atmosphere of an incineration plant over a 2-month period. The results show that stable and long-term continuous data transfer was enabled by LoRaWAN, which proved useful for detecting rapid changes in gas levels. However, it was observed that raw data from the low-cost sensors did not meet the NIOSH accuracy criteria of ± 25% of the estimated true concentration based on field data from a co-located gas detector that met the NIOSH accuracy criteria. The new IoT technologies and CO sensor networks shows potential for remote monitoring of exposure in order to: (1) detect rapid changes in CO and other possible hazardous airborne gases; and (2) show the dynamic range of real-time data that may be hazardous for workers in the sampled areas. While the IoT low-cost sensors appear to be useful as a sentinel for monitoring hazardous atmospheres containing CO, the more useful finding may be showing real-time changes and the dynamic range of exposures, thus shedding light on the transient and toxic nature of airborne hazards. More importantly, the low-cost CO sensors are not a clear substitute for the more costly real-time gas detectors that perform within the NIOSH accuracy criteria.en_US
dc.publisherTaylor and Francisen_US
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleEmbedded systems and the Internet of Things: Can low-cost gas sensors be used in risk assessment of occupational exposure?en_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.source.journalJournal of Occupational and Environmental Hygieneen_US
dc.description.localcode© 2020 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License ( nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.en_US

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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internasjonal
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internasjonal