Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) in non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: Evaluation of an educational programme
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionBMJ Open. 2019, 9:e027980 (5), 1-8. 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-027980
Background Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a critical incident with a high mortality rate. Augmentation of the circulation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) might be beneficial. Use of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) redistribute cardiac output to the organs proximal to the occlusion. Preclinical data support that patients in non-traumatic cardiac arrest might benefit from REBOA in the thoracic level during CPR. This study describes a training programme to implement the REBOA procedure to a prehospital working team, in preparation to a planned clinical study. Methods We developed a team-based REBOA training programme involving the physicians and paramedics working on the National Air Ambulance helicopter base in Trondheim, Norway. The programme consists of a four-step approach to educate, train and implement the REBOA procedure in a simulated prehospital setting. An objective structured assessment of prehospital REBOA application scoring chart and a special designed simulation mannequin was made for this study. Results Seven physicians and 3 paramedics participated. The time needed to perform the REBOA procedure was 8.5 (6.3–12.7) min. The corresponding time from arrival at scene to balloon inflation was 12.0 (8.8–15) min. The total objective assessment scores of the candidates’ competency was 41.8 (39–43.5) points out of 48. The advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS) remained at standard quality, regardless of the simultaneous REBOA procedure. Conclusion This four-step approach to educate, train and implement the REBOA procedure to a prehospital working team ensures adequate competence in a simulated OHCA setting. The use of a structured training programme and objective assessment of skills is recommended before utilising the procedure in a clinical setting. In a simulated setting, the procedure does not add significant time to the prehospital resuscitation time nor does the procedure interfere with the quality of the ACLS.