No major reduction in bone mineral density after long-term treatment of patients with Celiac Disease
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionEuropean journal of internal medicine. 2019, 68 23-29. 10.1016/j.ejim.2019.07.024
Background At time of diagnosis, patients with celiac disease (CD) have been shown to have lower bone mineral density (BMD) than healthy controls. It is unclear whether adult patients with CD can regain a normal BMD after treatment with a gluten-free diet (GFD). Methods Patients diagnosed with CD as adults, who had been treated with GFD for a minimum of two years, were examined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to determine BMD at femoral neck and spine L2-4. Adherence to GFD was measured using the Celiac Disease Adherence Test (CDAT) scoring tool. Results 143 CD patients underwent DXA assessment, mean age was 55.8 years and mean treatment duration was 9.3 years. 67% of the patients were women, and 51% of these were postmenopausal. The prevalence of low bone mass (Z-score ≤ −1.0) was 18.2% (95%CI: 12.7–25.3%) at femoral neck and 23.1% (95%CI: 16.9–30.6%) at spine L2-4. An increase in low bone density prevalence at spine L2-4 compared to the expected prevalence (p = 0.016) was limited to the postmenopausal women. In a multiple regression analysis, only postmenopausal status and poor adherence to GFD was independently associated with reduced bone density, this however limited to spine L2-4. Conclusion Our study shows a small increase in the prevalence of low bone density at lumbar spine limited to the postmenopausal women. The main finding is that the majority of the CD patients after two years of treatment with GFD had a normal bone density when adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity and weight.