Machine Learning of Infant Spontaneous Movements for the Early Prediction of Cerebral Palsy: A Multi-Site Cohort Study
Ihlen, Espen Alexander F.; Støen, Ragnhild; Boswell, Lynn; de-Regnier, Raye-Ann; Fjørtoft, Toril Larsson; Gaebler-spira, Deborah; Labori, Cathrine; Loennecken, Marianne; Msall, Me; Møinicken, Unn inger; Peyton, Colleen; Schreiber, Me; Silberg, Inger Elisabeth; Songstad, Nils Thomas; Vaagen, Randi; Øberg, Gunn Kristin; Adde, Lars
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Background: Early identification of cerebral palsy (CP) during infancy will provide opportunities for early therapies and treatments. The aim of the present study was to present a novel machine-learning model, the Computer-based Infant Movement Assessment (CIMA) model, for clinically feasible early CP prediction based on infant video recordings. Methods: The CIMA model was designed to assess the proportion (%) of CP risk-related movements using a time–frequency decomposition of the movement trajectories of the infant’s body parts. The CIMA model was developed and tested on video recordings from a cohort of 377 high-risk infants at 9–15 weeks corrected age to predict CP status and motor function (ambulatory vs. non-ambulatory) at mean 3.7 years age. The performance of the model was compared with results of the general movement assessment (GMA) and neonatal imaging. Results: The CIMA model had sensitivity (92.7%) and specificity (81.6%), which was comparable to observational GMA or neonatal cerebral imaging for the prediction of CP. Infants later found to have non-ambulatory CP had significantly more CP risk-related movements (median: 92.8%, p = 0.02) compared with those with ambulatory CP (median: 72.7%). Conclusion: The CIMA model may be a clinically feasible alternative to observational GMA.