Facilitating and Advancing Universal Design of ICT
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Background: In modern societies, the consequences of digital exclusion are severe. Legislation on Universal Design (UD) reflects socio-economic, democratic and ethical reasons for ensuring all citizens are able to use solutions based on Information and Communications Technology (ICT). Still, industry and higher education lack guidance on what UD of ICT entails in practice. Aim: This thesis investigates the possibilities and challenges when implementing the legislation in complex real-life settings, and articulates how educators and professionals should view UD expertise, and the necessary latitudes and appropriate priorities for ICT-projects. We answer: (1) What are best practice methodologies for ensuring UD of ICT? (2) What are applied aspects impacting UD of ICT? (3) How can we create advice or tools to facilitate UD of ICT? (4) How should we move towards advancing UD of ICT, and why? Method: Using a mix-method and applied approach, research methods include literature reviews, survey, interview studies, and case studies. We apply content analysis, statistics, and grounded theory to interpret the data, and generative and design-based research to utilize the insights. Contributions: We start by investigating best practice methodological stances and approaches. Due to the complexity of viewing UD of ICT as one field, we reframe our view and propose a uniform understanding of what UD entails for interaction design (IxD) and service design (SD). We find a mutual influence of Personal, Processual, Organizational and Social factors on UD success, and identify Critical Success Criteria (CSC) for ensuring UD in ICT-projects. From this empirical basis, different methods, models, and tools are developed, piloted and prototyped; including defining UD of services, and predicting UD success based on compliance to the CSC. A theoretical framework is modeled, reflecting the identified factors influencing UD. Conclusions: By increasing our abilities to predict and facilitate UD quality prior to or early in ICT-procurement and development processes, the thesis contributions inform future actions and advance a continued integration of UD in society. The findings can have relevance for researchers in the field of UD, for policy makers, for IxD and SD educators and professionals, for providers of ICT solutions targeted to the public, and the designers and developers creating these solutions and services.
Has partsPaper 1: Common Approaches to Universal Design of IT - This paper is awaiting publication and is not included in NTNU Open
Paper 2: Begnum, Miriam Eileen Nes. Methodology for Universal Design of ITs; Epistemologies Among Norwegian Experts. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) 2016 ;Volum 9758. s. 121-128 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-41264-1_17
Paper 3: Begnum, Miriam E. Nes. Universal Design Approaches among Norwegian Experts. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) 2017 ;Volum 10277. s. 3-20 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-58706-6_1
Paper 4: Begnum, Miriam E. Nes. Views on universal design and disabilities among norwegian experts on universal design of ICT. NOKOBIT - Norsk konferanse for organisasjoners bruk av informasjonsteknologi 2016 ;Volum 24.(1)
Paper 5: Begnum, Miriam Eileen Nes; Thorkildsen, Therese. Comparing User-Centered Practices in Agile Versus Non-Agile Development. NOKOBIT - Norsk konferanse for organisasjoners bruk av informasjonsteknologi 2015 ;Volum 23.(1)
Paper 6: Begnum, Miriam E. Nes; Furuheim, Lars. Exploration of User-Centered Agile Development Practices. I: NordDesign 2016. The Design Society 2016 ISBN 978-1-904670-80-3. s. 391-400
Paper 7: Hjartnes, Øyvind Nordeide; Begnum, Miriam E. Nes. Challenges in Agile Universal Design of ICT. I: DS 91: Proceedings of NordDesign 2018, Linköping, Sweden, 14th - 17th August 2018 DESIGN IN THE ERA OF DIGITALIZATION. The Design Society 2018 ISBN 978-91-7685-185-2.
Paper 8: Harder, Susanne Klungland; Begnum, Miriam E. Nes. Promoting and obstructing factors for successful universal design of ICT. NOKOBIT - Norsk konferanse for organisasjoners bruk av informasjonsteknologi 2016 ;Volum 24.(1)
Paper 9: Begnum, Miriam E. Nes; Harder, Susanne Klungland; Hjartnes, Øyvind Nordeide. (in review) Ensuring Universal Design: Towards Predicting Project Success through UD3C Critical Criteria Compliance. - This paper is awaiting publication and is not included in NTNU Open
Paper 10: Foss-Pedersen, Rikke J.; Begnum, Miriam E. Nes. (2017) Universell utforming og digital eksamen i UH-sektoren: 5 anbefalte tiltakspunkter. Proceedings of NOKOBIT - Norsk konferanse for organisasjoners bruk av informasjonsteknologi, vol. 25 (1)
Paper 11: Begnum, Miriam E. Nes; Foss-Pedersen, Rikke Julie. Digital assessment in higher education: Promoting universal usability through requirements specification and universal design quality (UD-Q) reviews. Universal Access in the Information Society 2017 s. 1-20 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10209-016-0513-9
Paper 12: Bue, Oda Lintho; Begnum, Miriam E. Nes. Towards Inclusive Service Design in the Digital Society: Current Practices and Future Recommendations. I: DS 91: Proceedings of NordDesign 2018, ISBN 978-91-7685-185-2.
Paper 13: Begnum, Miriam Eileen Nes; Pettersen, Lene; Sørum, Hanne. Identifying Five Archetypes of Interaction Design Professionals and Their Universal Design Expertise. Interacting with computers 2019 https://doi.org/10.1093/iwc/iwz023