Interlaboratory study of ice adhesion using different techniques
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Low ice adhesion surfaces are a promising anti-icing strategy. However, reported ice adhesion strengths cannot be directly compared between research groups. This study compares results obtained from testing the ice adhesion strength on the same surface at two different laboratories, testing two different types of ice with different ice adhesion test methods at temperatures of -10oC and -18oC. One laboratory uses the centrifuge adhesion test and tests precipitation ice and bulk water ice, while the other laboratory uses a vertical shear test and tests only bulk water ice. The surfaces tested were bare aluminum and a commercial icephobic coating, with all samples prepared in the same manner. The results showed comparability in the general trends, surprisingly, with the greatest differences for bare aluminum surfaces at temperature -10oC. For bulk water ice, the vertical shear test resulted in systematically higher ice adhesion strength than the centrifugal adhesion test. The standard deviation depends on the surface type and seems to scale with the absolute value of the ice adhesion strength. The experiments capture the overall trends in which the ice adhesion strength surprisingly decreases from -10oC to -18oC for aluminum and is almost independent of temperature for a commercial icephobic coating. In addition, the study captures similar trends in the effect of ice type on ice adhesion strength as previously reported and substantiates that ice formation is a key parameter for ice adhesion mechanisms.