Impact of large-scale EV integration and fast chargers in a Norwegian LV grid
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Norway has implemented economic incentives over several years to encourage a transition from conventional vehicles to electric vehicles (EVs), and now has the largest share of EVs per capita in the world. In this study, the authors explore the impacts of increasing EV penetration levels in a Norwegian distribution grid, by using real power measurements obtained from household smart meters in load flow analyses. The implications of installing a fast charger in the grid have been assessed, and an optimal location for it is proposed, aiming at minimising both grid losses and voltage deviations. Moreover, the potential for reactive power injection to reduce the voltage deviations caused by fast chargers has been investigated. Results show that the EV hosting capacity of the grid is good for a majority of the end-users, but the weakest power cable in the system will be overloaded at a 20% EV penetration level. The network tolerated an EV penetration of 50% with regard to the voltage levels at all end-users. Injecting reactive power at the location of an installed fast charger proved to significantly reduce the largest voltage deviations otherwise imposed by the charger.