Estimating source signatures from source-over-spread marine seismic data
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionGeophysics. 2018, 83 (6), P53-P62. 10.1190/geo2017-0789.1
Recent developments in marine seismic acquisition include deploying a source vessel above a towed-streamer spread. We have developed an inversion algorithm to estimate source signatures for such acquisition configurations, by minimizing the difference between the recorded and a modeled direct wave. The forward modeling is based upon a physical modeling of the air bubble created by each air gun in the source array, and a damped Gauss-Newton approach is used for the optimization. Typical inversion parameters are empirical damping factors for the bubble oscillations and firing time delays for each air gun. Variations in streamer depth are taken into account, and a constant sea-surface reflection coefficient is also estimated as a by-product of the inversion. For data acquired in shallow waters, we have developed an extension of the forward modeling to include reflections from the water bottom to stabilize the inversion. The algorithm is tested on synthetic- and field-data examples, and the estimated source signature for the field-data example is used in a designature processing flow.