• Animal models to study the role of long-term hypergastrinemia in gastric carcinogenesis 

      Fossmark, Reidar; Qvigstad, Gunnar; Martinsen, Tom Christian; Hauso, Øyvind; Waldum, Helge (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2011)
      Patients with chronic hypergastrinemia due to chronic atrophic gastritis or gastrinomas have an increased risk of developing gastric malignancy, and it has been questioned whether also patients with hypergastrinemia caused ...
    • Gastric Carcinomas Localized to the Cardia 

      Bakkelund, Karin Elvenes; Nordrum, Ivar Skjåk; Fossmark, Reidar; Waldum, Helge (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2012)
      Objectives. Gastric adenocarcinomas localized to the cardia are increasing. Enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells play a role in gastric carcinogenesis in hypergastrinemia, and the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) leading ...
    • Not only stem cells, but also mature cells, particularly neuroendocrine cells, may develop into tumours: time for a paradigm shift 

      Waldum, Helge; Öberg, Kjell; Sørdal, Øystein Finset; Sandvik, Arne Kristian; Gustafsson, Björn; Mjønes, Patricia; Fossmark, Reidar (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      Stem cells are considered the origin of neoplasms in general, and malignant tumours in particular, and the stage at which the stem cells stop their differentiation determines the degree of malignancy. However, there is ...
    • Role of Autoimmune Gastritis in Gastric Cancer 

      Waldum, Helge; Fossmark, Reidar (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      It has been known for 70 years that gastric cancer occurs mainly in a stomach with gastritis. Gastritis was previously so prevalent that it was regarded as an aging phenomenon. Since the description of Helicobacter pylori ...
    • The enterochromaffin-like [ECL] cell-central in gastric physiology and pathology 

      Waldum, Helge; Sørdal, Øystein Finset; Mjønes, Patricia (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      Background: Studies on the regulation of gastric and pancreatic secretion began more than 100 years ago. Secretin was the first hormone postulated to exist, initiating the field of endocrinology. Gastrin produced in the ...
    • The phylogeny and biological function of gastric juice-microbiological consequences of removing gastric acid 

      Martinsen, Tom Christian; Fossmark, Reidar; Waldum, Helge (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      Gastric juice is a unique combination of hydrochloric acid (HCl), lipase, and pepsin. Acidic gastric juice is found in all vertebrates, and its main function is to inactivate microorganisms. The phylogenetic preservation ...