Detection of extraneous water ingress into the sewer system using tandem methods- A case study in Trondheim city
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionWater Science and Technology. 2019, 79 (2), 231-239. 10.2166/wst.2019.057
Infiltration and inflow (I/I) of extraneous water in separate sewer systems are serious concerns in urban water management for their environmental, social and economic consequences. Effective reduction of I/I requires knowing where excess water ingress and illicit connections are located. The present study focuses on I/I detection in the foul sewer network of a catchment in Trondheim, Norway, during a period without snowmelt or groundwater infiltration. Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) was used for the first time in Norway to detect I/I sources in tandem with closed-circuit television inspection (CCTV) and smoke testing. DTS was an accurate and feasible method for I/I detection, though it cannot identify exact types of failure and sources of I/I. Therefore, other complementary methods must be used, e.g. CCTV or smoke testing. However, CCTV was not completely useful in confirming the DTS results. This study provides practical insights for the rehabilitation and repair of sewer networks that suffer from the undesirable I/I of extraneous water.