Displacements as failure origin of placed riprap on steep slopes
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonJournal of Hydraulic Research. 2018, 56 (2), 141-155. 10.1080/00221686.2017.1323806
This paper presents results from a scale model study related to the stability of dumped and placed riprap on steep slopes of 1:1.5 (vertical: horizontal) exposed to overtopping. The experiments showed that small rearrangements of the stones in placed riprap, quantified as displacements of particular stones, led to a compaction in the lower part of the riprap and to loosening in the upstream part. The riprap became unstable when the maximum displacements exceeded the size of the longest axes of the riprap stones. The experimental data were used to develop a relationship to describe the development of the displacements taking the load-history into account. The obtained results were indirectly confirmed by comparison with findings of two reports which are described in the present paper. Moreover, placing the riprap stones in an interlocking pattern resulted in five times higher critical discharges compared to randomly dumped riprap.