Fear of hypoglycaemia and its relation to hypoglycaemia awareness and symptom intensity in Type 1 diabetes
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonDiabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2018, 137 213-220. 10.1016/j.diabres.2018.01.014
Aims To investigate fear of hypoglycaemia (FoH) in relation to hypoglycaemia awareness, history of severe hypoglycaemia (SH) and hypoglycaemia symptoms in adults with Type 1 diabetes. Methods Questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey. We assessed FoH with the Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey-II Worry subscale, hypoglycaemia awareness status with the Gold score, and used the Edinburgh Hypoglycaemia Scale to grade the presence and intensity of hypoglycaemia symptoms. All these measures have previously been validated for research application. We used multivariable linear regression to examine associations between FoH and hypoglycaemia awareness status, history of SH and hypoglycaemia symptom score. Results Of 636 invitees, 445 (70%) responded, with 435 responses eligible for analyses. Seventy-four persons had IAH (17%). Among those, 47 (64%) reported ≥ 1 SH during the preceding year, in contrast to this being reported by 113 (31%) of persons with normal awareness. The mean (SD) FoH worry score was 1.33 (0.78). This score was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.45–0.83) higher among people with impaired vs. normal hypoglycaemia awareness and 0.53 (95% CI, 0.33–0.73) higher among people with ≥ 3 episodes of SH the preceding year vs. people with no such episode. A higher number and intensity of hypoglycaemia symptoms was associated with higher FoH, as demonstrated by an increase in mean FoH worry score of 0.30 (95% CI, 0.23–0.36) per point increase in mean Edinburgh hypoglycaemia score. Conclusions Impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia, history of SH and higher Edinburgh hypoglycaemia scores were all associated with increased FoH in adults with Type 1 diabetes.