Open Conductor Faults and Dynamic Analysis of a Power System
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- Institutt for elkraftteknikk 
The overall goal of this thesis is to study and understand Open Conductor Faults and to assess their impact on the stability of a power system. In particular, the thesis has investigated the effect of this type of the fault on the dynamic electromechanical behavior of synchronous machine. The thesis has also focused on the effect of generator and transformer grounding as well as the effect of transformer winding configuration on the stability of the power system during this type of fault.Open conductor faults are series faults which involve a break in one or two of the three conductors of a three phase power system. As such, the fault is an unsymmetrical fault and thus, the theory of symmetrical components was revisited. Symmetrical components and symmetrical circuits have been used to analyze both types of open conductor faults in order to understand the phenomenon and ease calculations. A dual approach to this study has been undertaken. The phenomenon is treated analytically through calculations and then the calculated results are confirmed through computer simulations using SIMPOW, a power system simulation software. In either approach, it is evidently clear, through the use of Eigen values and calculated damping coefficients, that the damping of the machine in an open conductor situation is worse than the for the normal case without the fault. A research in to the developed equations for damping has been undertaken. The theory of induction motors is applied in development of both the positive and negative damping power. The equation for negative damping power is developed first, using the symmetrical component concept and secondly, using the single phasing concept. In the investigation of transformer winding configurations and the grounding generators and transformers, different scenarios have been considered and simulated in order to show their effect during the fault. Finally the two open conductor case has also been investigated analytically and through computer simulation. The effect of grounding is shown in the results obtained. It shows that power transfer only occurs when there is a return path from the point of the fault to the generator.