Wireframing in Co-Design with and for Children
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This thesis investigates how digital wireframing tools can be included into co-design with children for creating high-tech/low-fidelity prototypes, and how the wireframing activity influences the design process as a whole. An interdisciplinary observation team observed nine 12-year old children in a co-design workshop including paper prototyping and wireframing activities, followed by the children sharing their experiences through questionnaires and a group interview. Both the observed, and self-reported, data indicate that 12-year olds have no problems mastering wireframing tools designed for adults and they are able to continue the creative process while wireframing. Moreover, the children are motivated by creating digital wireframes and most would choose to present their ideas through this medium over paper prototypes, while at the same time acknowledging the benefit of creating paper prototypes first. The real-looking aspect of the wireframes was particularly motivating for the participants. Rather than choosing between digital and paper-based approaches to prototyping, digital wireframing can be successfully included as an additional activity to paper prototyping in co-design workshops.Regarding the value of the produced artefacts, they are of less value to the further design process compared to the conversations they stimulate through their creation. The most valuable aspect of including wireframing in co-design is the space it creates for designers and end users to discuss design solutions. The success of including wireframing further raises the question of how young the participants can be. This thesis is relevant to researchers of child computer interaction and planners of co-design workshops with children.