Integration of Plug-in Electrical Vehicles in the Software Ecosystem of Smart Grids
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The thesis can be described as a roadmap accomplished by software engi-neering (SE) activities to elicit the challenges and opportunities presentedwhen integrating plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the Smart Grid. Theintegration is required to be sustainable and state-of-the-art given the SmartGrid's characterization as a software ecosystem (SECO), which introduces aset of new challenges for software engineering. PEVs are ideal candidates tointegrate given their dependency on energy, mobility, and predicted marketgrowthover the next decades. The thesis may also benet other entities tobe integrated in a Smart Grid.The research methodology aims to guide how software engineering can bestaccomplish the PEV integration from an initial starting point. This is accomplishedby describing and documenting the complex groundwork andcontext of the SECO Smart Grid, and its relationship with PEVs. Giventhe interdisciplinary and wast subject of Smart Grids, the thesis can beconsidered as exploratory work utilizing the following research methods:Prototyping, modeling and a state-of-the-art literature review. And the resultsare represented by goal-oriented requirements, domain- and enterprisemodeling, requirements elicitation, and architectural design.The results employs multiple requirements engineering (RE) activities tobest describe how to establish an PEV - Smart Grid integration. A goalorientedrequirements engineering approach was taken to identify high-levelstakeholder goals and system concepts such as the operational environmentand functional objectives. The literature review and prototype builds on thefoundation of describing and modeling a set of required and highly detailedgeneric systems, requirements of the Smart Grid, and suggestive architecturalviews. Interoperability, modularity and testability were identied asimperative architectural quality attributes, which is elaborated in the resultsand discussion.Further, a simulation model was develop for the thesis; an electrical powergrid and a large PEV eet interacting in Trondheim, Norway. The simulationmodel serves as a proof-of-concept and a prototype to describe andunderstand the Smart Grid - PEV relationship. The simulation illustrateshow the dierent stakeholders in the electricity industry can benet fromthe ICT possibilities oered by the Smart Grid. This was accomplished bypeak shaving the energy consumption with a service reduction mitigationstrategy.