Potential power setups, fuels and hull designs capable of satisfying future EEDI requirements
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Maritime emission regulations set limits for SOx and NOx emissions for health and environmental reasons, and for CO2, through the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI), with the general aim of mitigating global warming. EEDI verification is performed at the vessel's design speed and design loads, under calm-water conditions. This, although calm seas are the exception in shipping, and that even with calm-water conditions, ships usually operate at lower speeds than their design speed. A major challenge, if greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction targets are to be met through the EEDI, will be to identify EEDI-compliant solutions that reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions under realistic operational conditions, from lying idle at berth in port to when full power is required in critical situations at sea. In view of all the above, we use the Aframax tanker class to illustrate how such an assessment can be performed, and to display the differences in costs and benefits of options, all of which meet the requirements of the EEDI.